It was America which tested the atom bomb in the deserts of Mexico, but Otto Habur, a German scientist was the first to succeed in making the atom bomb by splitting the atom. For this he got the Nobel Prize for 1944 – 45. Later on, America dropped two atom bombs on Japan to bring the World War II to an end. The first was dropped on Hiroshima and the second on Nagasaki on 6th and 9th August 1945, respectively. Both the cities were ruined. America came out as the mightiest country of the world.
Now the atom bomb is the thing of the past. Hydrogen bomb which is made by fusion of hydrogen atom into helium is many times more powerful than the atom bomb. And in this series most destructive (powerful) is the neutron bomb.
Today, the world is sitting on a volcano. The fear of use of the bomb in war has started a mad race among all the nations, especially those who are rich, can invest huge amount on nuclear weapons. Dr. Einstein, the world famous scientist once said that the fourth war, at all it breaks out, will be fought with bricks and stones, because a third world war will bring everything in the world to ashes. Therefore, it is a challenge to mankind. Either man should put an end to war or war will end him.
The association of atomic power with destruction has all along raised the question whether atomic energy should be developed at all. After the incidents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, man has begun looking on atomic power with horror and suspicion.
His horror is certainly well founded. The superpowers like America, Russia, Germany, France, China etc. have stockpiled deadly atomic weapons in their arsenals. There is tension and suspicion, distrust and fear of each other. If a war starts between the nuclear powers, atomic or nuclear weapons may certainly be used and then mankind will witness a destruction of all the fruits of civilization and culture, all beautiful things which science has given for our comforts, well being, pleasures will be wiped out of existence. Instead of bustling of life there will be deadly silence of death. All those who love life, its beauty and goodness would like the atomic power to be brought to an end.
India has always opposed the use of atomic energy for the destruction of mankind. Though on May 18, 1974 history was made at Pokhran by exploding the first nuclear device. Then after a gap of 25 years, on May 11 and 13, 1999, India again tested successfully its nuclear power. This has led Pakistan also to test its nuclear power. It also successfully launched in May itself, though both are committed to the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only.
Atomic power harnessed for peaceful purposes can bring enormous benefits to humanity. It can solve the energy problem. Nuclear power can be used for canal excavation, natural gas stimulation, underground mining, oil and extinguishing gas fires. Agricultural production can be increased manifold by making use of radioisotopes. Industrial production will go up. There will be no pollution due to smoke and fumes coming out of chimneys. A revolution can be brought about in the medical science. We know that radium rays are used for treating cancer and other diseases. Atomic energy can be used in place of conventional sources of energy in transport. This will make transport quicker cheaper and more comfortable.